While the creation of Debian packages is abundantly documented, most tutorials are targeted to packages implementing the Debian policy. Moreover, Debian packaging has a reputation of being unnecessarily difficult1 and many people prefer to use less constrained tools2 like fpm or CheckInstall.

However, I would like to show how building Debian packages with the official tools can become straightforward if you bend some rules:

  1. No source package will be generated. Packages will be built directly from a checkout of a VCS repository.

  2. Additional dependencies can be downloaded during build. Packaging individually each dependency is a painstaking work, notably when you have to deal with some fast-paced ecosystems like Java, Javascript and Go.

  3. The produced packages may bundle dependencies. This is likely to raise some concerns about security and long-term maintenance, but this is a common trade-off in many ecosystems, notably Java, Javascript and Go.

Pragmatic packages 101§

In the Debian archive, you have two kinds of packages: the source packages and the binary packages. Each binary package is built from a source package. You need a name for each package.

As stated in the introduction, we won’t generate a source package but we will work with its unpacked form which is any source tree containing a debian/ directory. In our examples, we will start with a source tree containing only a debian/ directory but you are free to include this debian/ directory into an existing project.

As an example, we will package memcached, a distributed memory cache. There are four files to create:

  • debian/compat,
  • debian/changelog,
  • debian/control, and
  • debian/rules.

The first one is easy. Just put 9 in it:

echo 9 > debian/compat

The second one has the following content:

memcached (0-0) UNRELEASED; urgency=medium

  * Fake entry

 -- Happy Packager <happy@example.com>  Tue, 19 Apr 2016 22:27:05 +0200

The only important information is the name of the source package, memcached, on the first line. Everything else can be left as is as it won’t influence the generated binary packages.

The control file§

debian/control describes the metadata of both the source package and the generated binary packages. We have to write a block for each of them.

Source: memcached
Maintainer: Vincent Bernat <bernat@debian.org>

Package: memcached
Architecture: any
Description: high-performance memory object caching system

The source package is called memcached. We have to use the same name as in debian/changelog.

We generate only one binary package: memcached. In the remaining of the example, when you see memcached, this is the name of a binary package. The Architecture field should be set to either any or all. Use all exclusively if the package contains only arch-independent files. In doubt, just stick to any.

The Description field contains a short description of the binary package.

The build recipe§

The last mandatory file is debian/rules. It’s the recipe of the package. We need to retrieve memcached, build it and install its file tree in debian/memcached/. It looks like this:

#!/usr/bin/make -f

DISTRIBUTION = $(shell lsb_release -sr)
VERSION = 1.4.25
TARBALL = memcached-$(VERSION).tar.gz
URL = http://www.memcached.org/files/$(TARBALL)

    dh $@

    wget -N --progress=dot:mega $(URL)
    tar --strip-components=1 -xf $(TARBALL)
    ./configure --prefix=/usr
    make install DESTDIR=debian/memcached

    dh_gencontrol -- -v$(PACKAGEVERSION)

The empty targets override_dh_auto_clean, override_dh_auto_test and override_dh_auto_build keep debhelper from being too smart. The override_dh_gencontrol target sets the package version3 without updating debian/changelog. If you ignore the slight boilerplate, the recipe is quite similar to what you would have done with fpm:

DISTRIBUTION=$(lsb_release -sr)

wget -N --progress=dot:mega ${URL}
tar --strip-components=1 -xf ${TARBALL}
./configure --prefix=/usr
make install DESTDIR=/tmp/installdir

# Build the final package
fpm -s dir -t deb \
    -n memcached \
    -C /tmp/installdir \
    --description "high-performance memory object caching system"

You can review the whole package tree on GitHub and build it with dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc -b.

Pragmatic packages 102§

At this point, we can iterate and add several improvements to our memcached package. None of those are mandatory but they are usually worth the additional effort.

Build dependencies§

Our initial build recipe only work when several packages are installed, like wget and libevent-dev. They are not present on all Debian systems. You can easily express that you need them by adding a Build-Depends section for the source package in debian/control:

Source: memcached
Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 9),
               wget, ca-certificates, lsb-release,

Always specify the debhelper (>= 9) dependency as we heavily rely on it. We don’t require make or a C compiler because it is assumed that the build-essential meta-package is installed and it pulls those. dpkg-buildpackage will complain if the dependencies are not met. If you want to install those packages from your CI system, you can use the following command4:

mk-build-deps \
    -t 'apt-get -o Debug::pkgProblemResolver=yes --no-install-recommends -qqy' \
    -i -r debian/control

You may also want to investigate pbuilder or sbuild, two tools to build Debian packages in a clean isolated environment.

Runtime dependencies§

If the resulting package is installed on a freshly installed machine, it won’t work because it will be missing libevent, a required library for memcached. You can express the dependencies needed by each binary package by adding a Depends field. Moreover, for dynamic libraries, you can automatically get the right dependencies by using some substitution variables:

Package: memcached
Depends: ${misc:Depends}, ${shlibs:Depends}

The resulting package will contain the following information:

$ dpkg -I ../memcached_1.4.25-0\~unstable0_amd64.deb | grep Depends
 Depends: libc6 (>= 2.17), libevent-2.0-5 (>= 2.0.10-stable)

Integration with init system§

Most packaged daemons come with some integration with the init system. This integration ensures the daemon will be started on boot and restarted on upgrade. For Debian-based distributions, there are several init systems available. The most prominent ones are:

  • System-V init is the historical init system. More modern inits are able to reuse scripts written for this init, so this is a safe common denominator for packaged daemons.
  • Upstart is the less-historical init system for Ubuntu (used in Ubuntu 14.10 and previous releases).
  • systemd is the default init system for Debian since Jessie and for Ubuntu since 15.04.

Writing a correct script for the System-V init is error-prone. Therefore, I usually prefer to provide a native configuration file for the default init system of the targeted distribution (Upstart and systemd).


If you want to provide a System-V init script, have a look at /etc/init.d/skeleton on the most ancient distribution you want to target and adapt it5. Put the result in debian/memcached.init. It will be installed at the right place, invoked on install, upgrade and removal. On Debian-based systems, many init scripts allow user customizations by providing a /etc/default/memcached file. You can ship one by putting its content in debian/memcached.default.


Providing an Upstart job is similar: put it in debian/memcached.upstart. For example:

description "memcached daemon"

start on runlevel [2345]
stop on runlevel [!2345]
respawn limit 5 60
expect daemon

  . /etc/default/memcached
  exec memcached -d -u $USER -p $PORT -m $CACHESIZE -c $MAXCONN $OPTIONS
end script

When writing an Upstart job, the most important directive is expect. Be sure to get it right. Here, we use expect daemon and memcached is started with the -d flag.


Providing a systemd unit is a bit more complex. The content of the file should go in debian/memcached.service. For example:

Description=memcached daemon

ExecStart=/usr/bin/memcached -d -u $USER -p $PORT -m $CACHESIZE -c $MAXCONN $OPTIONS


We reuse /etc/default/memcached even if it is not considered a good practice with systemd6. Like for Upstart, the directive Type is quite important. We used forking as memcached is started with the -d flag.

You also need to add a build-dependency to dh-systemd in debian/control:

Source: memcached
Build-Depends: debhelper (>= 9),
               wget, ca-certificates, lsb-release,

And you need to modify the default rule in debian/rules:

    dh $@ --with systemd

The extra complexity is a bit unfortunate but systemd integration is not part of debhelper7. Without those additional modifications, the unit will get installed but you won’t get a proper integration and the service won’t be enabled on install or boot.

Dedicated user§

Many daemons don’t need to run as root and it is a good practice to ship a dedicated user. In the case of memcached, we can provide a _memcached user8.

Add a debian/memcached.postinst file with the following content:


set -e

case "$1" in
        adduser --system --disabled-password --disabled-login --home /var/empty \
                --no-create-home --quiet --force-badname --group _memcached


exit 0

There is no cleanup of the user when the package is removed for two reasons:

  1. Less stuff to write.
  2. The user could still own some files.

The utility adduser will do the right thing whatever the requested user already exists or not. You need to add it as a dependency in debian/control:

Package: memcached
Depends: ${misc:Depends}, ${shlibs:Depends}, adduser

The #DEBHELPER# marker is important as it will be replaced by some code to handle the service configuration files (or some other stuff).

You can review the whole package tree on GitHub and build it with dpkg-buildpackage -us -uc -b.

Pragmatic packages 103§

It is possible to leverage debhelper to reduce the recipe size and to make it more declarative. This section is quite optional and it requires understanding a bit more how a Debian package is built. Feel free to skip it.

The big picture§

There are four steps to build a regular Debian package:

  1. debian/rules clean should clean the source tree to make it pristine.

  2. debian/rules build should trigger the build. For an autoconf-based software, like memcached, this step should execute something like ./configure && make.

  3. debian/rules install should install the file tree of each binary package. For an autoconf-based software, this step should execute make install DESTDIR=debian/memcached.

  4. debian/rules binary will pack the different file trees into binary packages.

You don’t directly write each of those targets. Instead, you let dh, a component of debhelper, do most of the work. The following debian/rules file should do almost everything correctly with many source packages:

#!/usr/bin/make -f
    dh $@

For each of the four targets described above, you can run dh with --no-act to see what it would do. For example:

$ dh build --no-act

Each of those helpers has a manual page. Helpers starting with dh_auto_ are a bit “magic”. For example, dh_auto_configure will try to automatically configure a package prior to building: it will detect the build system and invoke ./configure, cmake or Makefile.PL.

If one of the helpers do not do the “right” thing, you can replace it by using an override target:

    ./configure --with-some-grog

Those helpers are also configurable, so you can just alter a bit their behaviour by invoking them with additional options:

    dh_auto_configure -- --with-some-grog

This way, ./configure will be called with your custom flag but also with a lot of default flags like --prefix=/usr for better integration.

In the initial memcached example, we overrode all those “magic” targets. dh_auto_clean, dh_auto_configure and dh_auto_build are converted to no-ops to avoid any unexpected behaviour. dh_auto_install is hijacked to do all the build process. Additionally, we modified the behavior of the dh_gencontrol helper by forcing the version number instead of using the one from debian/changelog.

Automatic builds§

As memcached is an autoconf-enabled package, dh knows how to build it: ./configure && make && make install. Therefore, we can let it handle most of the work with this debian/rules file:

#!/usr/bin/make -f

DISTRIBUTION = $(shell lsb_release -sr)
VERSION = 1.4.25
TARBALL = memcached-$(VERSION).tar.gz
URL = http://www.memcached.org/files/$(TARBALL)

    dh $@ --with systemd

    wget -N --progress=dot:mega $(URL)
    tar --strip-components=1 -xf $(TARBALL)

    # Don't run the whitespace test
    rm t/whitespace.t

    dh_gencontrol -- -v$(PACKAGEVERSION)

The dh_auto_clean target is hijacked to download and setup the source tree9. We don’t override the dh_auto_configure step, so dh will execute the ./configure script with the appropriate options. We don’t override the dh_auto_build step either: dh will execute make. dh_auto_test is invoked after the build and it will run the memcached test suite. We need to override it because one of the test is complaining about odd whitespaces in the debian/ directory. We suppress this rogue test and let dh_auto_test executes the test suite. dh_auto_install is not overriden either, so dh will execute some variant of make install.

To get a better sense of the difference, here is a diff:

--- memcached-intermediate/debian/rules 2016-04-30 14:02:37.425593362 +0200
+++ memcached/debian/rules  2016-05-01 14:55:15.815063835 +0200
@@ -12,10 +12,9 @@
    wget -N --progress=dot:mega $(URL)
    tar --strip-components=1 -xf $(TARBALL)
-   ./configure --prefix=/usr
-   make
-   make install DESTDIR=debian/memcached
+   # Don't run the whitespace test
+   rm t/whitespace.t
+   dh_auto_test

It is up to you to decide if dh can do some work for you, but you could try to start from a minimal debian/rules and only override some targets.

Install additional files§

While make install installed the essential files for memcached, you may want to put additional files in the binary package. You could use cp in your build recipe, but you can also declare them:

  • files listed in debian/memcached.docs will be copied to /usr/share/doc/memcached by dh_installdocs,
  • files listed in debian/memcached.examples will be copied to /usr/share/doc/memcached/examples by dh_installexamples,
  • files listed in debian/memcached.manpages will be copied to the appropriate subdirectory of /usr/share/man by dh_installman,

Here is an example using wildcards for debian/memcached.docs:


If you need to copy some files to an arbitrary location, you can list them along with their destination directories in debian/memcached.install and dh_install will take care of the copy. Here is an example:

scripts/memcached-tool usr/bin

Using those files make the build process more declarative. It is a matter of taste and you are free to use cp in debian/rules instead. You can review the whole package tree on GitHub.

Other examples§

The GitHub repository contains some additional examples. They all follow the same scheme:

  • dh_auto_clean is hijacked to download and setup the source tree
  • dh_gencontrol is modified to use a computed version

Notably, you’ll find daemons in Java, Go, Python and Node.js. The goal of those examples is to demonstrate that using Debian tools to build Debian packages can be straightforward. Hope this helps.

  1. People may remember the time before debhelper 7.0.50 (circa 2009) where debian/rules was a daunting beast. However, nowaday, the boilerplate is quite reduced. 

  2. The complexity is not the only reason. Those alternative tools enable the creation of RPM packages, something that Debian tools obviously don’t. 

  3. There are many ways to version a package. Again, if you want to be pragmatic, the proposed solution should be good enough for Ubuntu. On Debian, it doesn’t cover upgrade from one distribution version to another, but we assume that nowadays, systems get reinstalled instead of being upgraded. 

  4. You also need to install devscripts and equivs package. 

  5. It’s also possible to use a script provided by upstream. However, there is no such thing as an init script that works on all distributions. Compare the proposed with the skeleton, check if it is using start-stop-daemon and if it sources /lib/lsb/init-functions before considering it. If it seems to fit, you can install it yourself in debian/memcached/etc/init.d/. debhelper will ensure its proper integration. 

  6. Instead, a user wanting to customize the options is expected to edit the unit with systemctl edit

  7. See #822670. For packages targetting Debian Stretch or Ubuntu Yaketty or more recent, putting 10 in debian/compat should be enough to remove dh-systemd from build dependencies and --with systemd from debian/rules

  8. The Debian Policy doesn’t provide any hint for the naming convention of those system users. A common usage is to prefix the daemon name with an underscore (like _memcached). Another common usage is to use Debian- as a prefix. The main drawback of the latest solution is that the name is likely to be replaced by the UID in ps and top because of its length. 

  9. We could call dh_auto_clean at the end of the target to let it invoke make clean. However, it is assumed that a fresh checkout is used before each build.